This interview with Dr. Bakary Sambe is the long version of an interview given to the French online magazine Le Point Afrique in early February 2023 which was conducted by the eminent journalist specializing in strategic issues, Malick Diawara. Among other issues related to the burning news in the Sahel and West Africa, this interview deals with issues related to the ongoing political transitions in Mali and Burkina Faso. Dr. Sambe answers straightforward questions about the perception of security cooperation in the Sahel, the contestation of the French presence and the contradictions of Europe on the issue of migration. He pleads for a better awareness of interdependencies and the topicality of the notion of "collective security" in a world in upheaval. He also, in the context of the war in Ukraine, returns to the rivalries between powers and the struggle for influence between Western powers, Russia, China and emerging powers of the Middle East in addition to the issues of the dispute between Algeria and Morocco and its impact in the construction of new political and economic spaces at the continental level.

Dr. Bakary Sambe, Regional Director of the Timbuktu Institute - African Center for Peace Studies (Dakar, Bamako, Niamey), a leading regional think tank in strategic studies and experimentation of agile approaches in crisis zones. Dr. Sambe is Assistant Professor and researcher at the Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis (Senegal).


How do you see the political and social evolution of the countries concerned, particularly those of the Sudano-Sahelian strip?

The States of the region cannot escape the global trend according to which governments will be increasingly confronted with the pressure of various demands that they cannot satisfy, a rise in power of civil societies and citizens who are more and more informed and demanding. This explains all the recent turmoil in Mali, Burkina Faso and elsewhere. In addition, the efforts made for democracy and the adherence to the neoliberal economy have not kept their promises of security and development. The populations are rising up against their national authorities as well as their international partners. The accumulation of problems that have led to institutional crises coupled with security crises has turned the region into a boiler, a pressure cooker that is only waiting for the circumstantial conditions of deflagration whose debris will cause a domino effect that is already of concern to our States and the international community. There is the multiplication of inter-community conflicts, the shortcomings of the fight against terrorism, while with the stigmatization of certain communities and the generalized ostracism, we have already entered the era of a communalization of the Jihad which threatens many States with progressive implosion. While we refuse to change the paradigm in this struggle that is far from being won.


What evolution do you see on the front of radicalism and religious fundamentalism?

Radicalization is no longer solely religious or ideological, although extremist groups like to put an Islamic veneer on all the mobilizing conflicts that allow them to recruit by presenting themselves, from now on, as "legitimate" protectors of marginalized communities in border areas. What is happening in the region is the final phase of a long struggle for influence and competition between religious models. Faced with the weakening of the leadership of traditional Islam in countries such as Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and, to a lesser extent, Côte d'Ivoire, the salafist currents have had the fine strategy of using technological and communicational modernity to better combat social and democratic modernity. In addition, salafism has now imposed itself not as the religion of those who are resistant to social progress, but as the mode of religiosity that recruits the most among the elites. There is a little visible and under-researched trend of an elitization of extremism and a progressive salafization of Islamic practice in the region. The contestation of secularism in Mali today is made in the name of a demand for sovereignty of thought and an endogenization of modes of governance. This tendency is the result of two factors: the recurrent links between the traditional Islamic leadership and all the successive regimes with a political class that is now largely rejected by a youth in search of meaning and opportunity. There is also the capacity of salafist currents to create discursive spaces of convergence with traditional Islam. They do this through the contestation of the secular model but also through the "defense of values" against what they call the Westernization of society and its "shortcomings" such as homosexuality and the "depravity of morals".


You have just published a book entitled "Islam in Senegal. Where do the brotherhoods come from? How can they make a difference in a country like Senegal? Can they be a real brake on religious extremism in the current context?

Brotherhood Islam is often analyzed in Senegal as the main bulwark against the radical Islamism that is already shaking several regions of the world and the Sahel. But the problem is that this confraternity model is weak in the eastern border regions, which are the most exposed and neighboring Mali and Mauritania. We must remain vigilant in the face of recent developments: the disappointment of young bangs vis-à-vis the confraternity discourse and certain marabouts seen as allies and guarantors of successive regimes has favored the influence of salafist doctrines perceived as more modern and committed, such as "theologies of liberation" seducing even the educated elites. At the end of my last book, "D'où viennent les confréries?", I explain the rise of a form of islamo-nationalism favoured by the cyclical inseparability between the religious and nationalist imaginations at a time when various identity claims are emerging. Paradoxically, today they unite certain members of the traditional left who are regenerating with Salafist movements under the banner of rejecting neo-liberalism and contesting Western domination, which is gaining ground in the region.


Do you see a link between what is currently happening in the Sahel and the issues of the food and health crisis?

Everything is connected. The Sahelian crisis is multidimensional; its resolution will be achieved precisely by moving away from mono-causal analyses. It is no coincidence that in recent years the international community has moved towards the paradigm of a security-development nexus. The security crisis in Burkina Faso and in the tri-border area of the Liptako Gourma in general has enormous consequences for the movement of populations and the abandonment or extortion of cultivable land. Insecure roads and the control of trade routes by extremist or criminal groups inevitably have an impact on food production and the availability of food in areas that have been severely affected by mass exodus. There are more than 2 million internally displaced persons in Burkina Faso today, not to mention the closure of more than 5,000 schools, not to mention the humanitarian consequences of the massive influx of refugees, with no less than 9,000 already heading to neighboring Côte d'Ivoire alone.


How do you think the situation and the management of the migration issue will evolve in this area?

During a meeting with a European Head of State visiting Senegal, I told him that Europe should take into account the new situation, according to which we have become an international community that is increasingly close because of the vulnerability we share. Terrorism strikes us in Gao, Timbuktu, Ayerou or Tchintabaraden, but threatens you every day in Paris, Berlin and elsewhere in Europe. Far be it from me to believe in a massive flood of migrants from the continent to Europe in case of a major crisis. Europe believes it has created the conditions - sometimes selfishly and at the cost of its own principles - for a façade of protection against African migration by spending colossal sums on initiatives such as Frontex and other trust funds. But it forgets our interdependence, which is now accentuated by the illusory nature of watertight borders. The world economy from which it derives the greatest benefit also exposes Europe to various vulnerabilities in terms of raw material supply. It is true that intra-continental migration is far more important than migration to Europe, which continues to barricade itself against Africa, whose natural resources it needs as well as the vitality of its youth. But the latter is less and less willing to accept and challenge the unequal paradigm of globalization where human flows seem to be one-way. You know, this one-way mobility is central to the perceptions of African youth who, in order to challenge a former colonial power, often first attack the visa services of consulates, as recently in Ouagadougou. As if it were necessary to use the very symbol of discord as a means of venting their anger.


With all the upheavals currently observed, notably the departure of French troops from Mali and Burkina, the installation of Wagner,..., what security situation do you foresee in and around the Sahel?

Wagner has never been an actor in regulation or stabilization; in fact, the use of Wagner is a sign of security failure, either assumed or repressed in populism. The famous rise in power of the FAMS, supported by Wagner, in Mali is often against ostracized communities that were more in need of protection than persecution. It is well known that in Mali, in particular, all of these movements - armed or terrorist - are each backed by a tribe, and some of their leaders even have a second hat as a tribal chief. A recent report by the Timbuktu Institute announced in mid-January that a clear alliance is emerging between the signatory movements and the JNIM against the EIS, which could mark a major turning point in the northern regions for the year 2023. This unexpected situation may also rekindle inter-communal tensions, particularly between the Tuareg and the Peulh (Fulani), and increase acts of banditry and other forms of violence.

The official end of the Barkhane operation in the Sahel announced by French President Emmanuel Macron on November 9, 2022, raises questions about the future of the G5 Sahel force in Niger and Burkina Faso, which are still members. The territorial discontinuity of the G5 Sahel following Mali's withdrawal alone risks giving more space to radical groups in the tri-border area. The future of the G5 Sahel is fraught with uncertainty, as a new alliance of circumstances between Mali and Burkina Faso is emerging that will consolidate Wagner's presence in the region. In addition, the tense climate between Mali and Niger makes it politically and practically impossible to take a common approach, let alone the necessary cooperation in the so-called "Three Borders" zone. Certainly, Burkina is preparing itself accordingly with a massive recruitment of VDP and a very likely rapprochement with Wagner. At the same time, Niger is opting to strengthen its national guard through a nomadic component and the support of its international partners, notably France, Italy and Germany, among others. But the truth is that in Mali, the Wagner option and the "all-military" approach have not produced the expected results. On the contrary, in addition to the isolation of the country from its traditional partners and immediate neighbors, serious human rights violations, ethnic and communal amalgamation and the massacres of civilian populations make the situation much more critical than before. With such a situation, there is every reason to believe that Mali is headed for a situation more serious than that of 2012, which will not spare any part of the country and, worse, will quickly spread to neighboring countries.


How could the alliances between Maghrebian and sub-Saharan countries between them and Europe and the United States, between them and countries such as China, India and Russia, while the latter is now  mired in its war against Ukraine?

 In Europe, public opinion will tend to tire of the war in Ukraine, which is likely to last longer than expected, as can be seen in Germany and even in France, a country that is already paying the price. If Africa does not succeed in taking advantage and playing, in the direction of its own interests, of this unprecedented positioning according to which the strategic tilt of our continent towards one of the blocks can modify the state of the international balance of power, it will be reduced, unfortunately, to a simple theater of confrontation by interposed countries. Syria is the perfect example, and even Mali is heading in that direction. Today, we are in the configuration of an off-shore balancing, a mechanism by which the great classical powers ensure that the strategic shift of the continent, which today can change the configuration of powers on the international scene, will not be at their expense or even better, will be to their advantage.

President Macky Sall's speech to Vladimir Putin explaining that, from now on, the continent would no longer vote by injunction or by simple alignment is a signal. Today, the situation has changed and Africa, if only its political leadership were to become aware of it, should do better in this new great game. There are at least three reasons for this: First, we are in a divided world where alignments are both multiple and diffuse. Second, the distribution of power is increasingly fragmented with the combined effect of classic powers that are declining, emerging powers that are rising, and a multitude of states claiming middle power status. Finally, and this is the trigger, we are in the context of an Africa that, through the dual effect of an increasingly uninhibited elite and a more demanding population, is seeking to better position itself in the game of international relations.

China has understood this at the expense of Europe and the United States, which are in the process of making a comeback. Russia does not have a clear vision for Africa; the continent serves, for the time being, as a demonstration ground for its capacity to harm Europe, France and the West in general. In this context, Africa is moving, at least in perceptions, from an acquired zone, a simple adjustment variable, to a more comfortable and advantageous zone in which its influence and weight could decide the balance of power on an international scale. It is a pity that the latent war between Morocco and Algeria is fragmenting continental alliances when what is needed is the synergy of efforts required for concerted African solutions. Only the overcoming of this conflict could facilitate a better reconnection of the two shores of the Sahara in the service of an integrated development of the continent.

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Violent Extremism remains one of West Africa's most pressing security threats. Violent extremism is a phenomenon that threatens the peace and tranquility of different countries and has claimed the lives of millions of people around the world in recent years.

Radicalization has different forms and dimensions; religious, sectional and, sometimes, racial. Internationally and regionally, no country is left unchallenged about this phenomenon and the dangers it poses to society at large. Religious radicalization has captured the attention of the international community and poses a major threat to global peace and security; it winds have believed to have blown from the Arabic world and spread like wildfires in countries around the world. It should be remembered from the outset that the phenomenon of extremism is not unique to predominantly Muslim societies. It is a phenomenon that is experienced by all religions in different social contexts and geographical areas.

Since decades, West Africa and the sahel are at the forefront of radicalization thoughts and activities, primarily carried out by local actors and small theaters in the region. Groups such as Jamâat Nusrat Al-Islam Wal Muslimeen (JNIM) and Islamic State Sahel province (ISSP),which operates in Mali and Burkina Fasso, and Boko haram in Nigeria, among others, have been carryout terrorist activities in their respective countries and far beyond.

Unlike the countries of the central Sahel, some West African countries are still spared terrorist attacks, although they are gradually being marked by the rise of a certain radicalization. This trend can be seen in the behaviors, modes of religiosity, and speeches of new preachers who are increasingly influential among young people.

As observed in the recent evolution of the countries of the region, the hardening of the increasingly contentious religious discourse is also linked to interactions between the political and religious spheres. The specific case of the Gambia cannot be properly analyzed without taking into account the inconsistencies of Yayah Jammeh's regime as well as the influences coming from abroad, more specifically from the Middle East and the Gulf countries.

Radicalism perspectives in The Gambia

One will, without a second thought, negate the question of The Gambia being completely immune from all elements of Islamic radicalization. To begin with, Gambia is geographically located in a community of nations that share not only an open and porous border but also deeply ingrained values and religious brotherhoods. The independence of nations within the Sahel and West African countries has increased the possibilities of radicalization. As a Muslim-majority country that regained its democratic values following the highly controversial 2016 presidential elections which brought current president Adama Barrow to power. However, the Gambia is a very welcoming country,its citizens also travel to different predominantly Islamic countries notably Iran,Iraq and Syria to pursue Islamic and Coranic studies. There is still no concrete evidence as to what type of knowledge such Gambian receive when they reach those countries. Also, the lack of adequate vetting process put the country into serious threats of radicalization etc.

The other important element is that there exist many Quranic educational centres that are run outside the umbrella of the government and its agencies. One might find it difficult to ascertain the philosophy being inculcated in the minds of these knowledge seekers in these completely isolated Islamic and Quaranic establishments. A study of Government programs revealed a well-organized structure in place to moderate and monitor what happens in conventional and Arabic (Madarasas) schools, but until now little is known of the locally run "daara" which are mainly run under the watch of learned community leaders. This survey intends to detail elements of Islamic radicalization in the Gambia and aims to find linkages with groups in Sub-Saharan Africa and globally recognized radicalized groups.

Through an analysis of the recent dynamics of the Gambian religious field, this article will first look at the prospects of radicalism in the Gambia. After an examination of the management of religion during the Yaya Jammeh era, the evolution of the relationship between Islamic actors and the regime will be discussed, as well as the process that has seen the development of Wahhabi movements and the evolution of religious discourse. Finally, beyond a simple religious phenomenon, it will be discussed how the hardening of preaching could constitute early signals of radicalization in the Gambia and why this country should be able to learn from the mistakes of Sahelian states in the face of the rise of violent extremism.

 Par Hervé Briand, Expert Sahel

Ce n'est pas un sentiment "anti-français" qui a cours actuellement en Afrique de l'Ouest : beaucoup de Français y résident paisiblement, temporairement ou non, notamment dans les pays sahéliens ou côtiers. Les voyageurs et les vacanciers y sont d'ailleurs toujours accueillis et traités avec bienveillance et la diaspora y est plutôt bien intégrée.

Ce n'est pas non plus un sentiment "anti-France", pays qui attire, quoi qu'on en dise, toujours des candidats à la migration estudiantine ou professionnelle de plus en plus nombreux, non seulement ceux issus des pays sahélo-sahariens plus pauvres, mais aussi ceux en provenance des pays africains côtiers même ceux aux économies plus fortes,

Ce "malaise" est d'abord, je le crois, en premier lieu, un sentiment "anti-méthode" à l'encontre de l'Occident et plus particulièrement de la France, qui est aujourd'hui de plus en plus exacerbé en Afrique de l'Ouest, non seulement au Sahel (essentiellement au Mali, au Burkina Faso, voire au Niger...), mais aussi de plus en plus ressenti dans les pays côtiers (Sénégal, Guinée, Côte d'Ivoire...)

Davantage que le fond, c'est la forme qui ne va pas ou qui n'est plus adaptée à l'écoute des autorités actuelles et des populations locales, dont une majorité d'acteurs civils, notamment au sein de la jeunesse africaine. En effet, une partie de ces populations et de ces décideurs ouest-africains déclare ne plus se satisfaire désormais de certaines attitudes occidentales, et notamment françaises, ayant pu donner une impression d’arrogance, de suffisance, de "donneur de leçons, voire d'ordres", ou pire encore de mépris qu'elles aient été volontaires ou non (y compris sur les réseaux sociaux...).

Ce "malaise" ou "lassitude" peut, il faut le souligner, être parfois exagéré par une sorte de "bashing anxiogène incessant", émanant d'une partie des médias français, spécialisés ou non sur l'Afrique, et souvent mal ressenti par certains interlocuteurs ouest-africains qui, disent-ils, ne parle du Sahel uniquement que pour évoquer les attaques des groupes terroristes, les actions militaires, les prises d'otages, les trafics en tout genre, les problèmes de gouvernance... Sans jamais (ou très peu..) citer aussi régulièrement les échanges commerciaux ou culturels fructueux, les initiatives sociales ou entrepreneuriales parfois heureuses, les succès individuels, les belles histoires communautaires..

Un de mes interlocuteurs m'interrogeait, récemment, à ce propos : "Que diriez-vous si le magazine américain "The Times" ou le journal "The Washington Post" ne parlaient de la France uniquement pour y évoquer les grèves ou les violences urbaines ? Ne serait-ce pas totalement réducteur et finalement très orienté ou engagé ? Ne deviendriez-vous pas quelque peu "anti-américain ?". Il est certain que ce "bashing anxiogène latent", surtout français selon certains, peut être aussi, sinon le déclencheur, au moins l'un des accélérateurs de ce malaise dit "anti-français"...

Élan d’indépendance, d’émancipation et de souveraineté assumée …

En second lieu, et à mon sens c'est le plus important, il s' agit aussi et surtout d'un ÉLAN D'INDÉPENDANCE, D'ÉMANCIPATION, DE SOUVERAINETÉ AFFIRMÉE et affichée aux yeux des populations locales, et surtout de la jeunesse, non seulement malienne ou burkinabé, mais aussi guinéenne et sénégalaise, que certains États ouest-africains veulent ou souhaiteraient assumer aujourd'hui et demain. 

Certains responsables politiques ne seraient pas contre cette "indépendance", ou plutôt une certaine "neutralité" vis à vis notamment de la France, en guise de signe ou gage d'une nouvelle "maturité", selon eux, de leurs États et surtout de leurs gouvernances et régimes, militaires ou non.

À cet égard, au Burkina Faso, il s'agit bien avant tout d'une volonté affichée du pouvoir de transition et d'une détermination du pays à vouloir se défendre militairement par lui-même, sans aide (visible) extérieure, notamment de l'ancien pays colonialiste. C'eût été peut-être une étape nécessaire si le Burkina Faso n'était pas un pays actuellement en proie à un terrorisme majeur... Mais c'est un risque énorme que  d'entreprendre aujourd'hui cette "émancipation" (au moins militaire...) soudaine dans le contexte actuel d'un terrorisme accru et aux multiples ramifications [JNIM (AQMI, AD, FLM), EI(G)S, ISWAP, JAS, AI...) et se "couper" ainsi d'une expertise et d'une capacité d'intervention française reconnue, à savoir l'opération d'élite "SABRE" (environ 400 soldats français "ultra-spécialisés" sur le sol burkinabé)

Que doit-on apprendre de ce nouvel élan ?

Cette volonté ou désir d'indépendance, voire de neutralité, vis à vis de la France n'est donc évidemment pas sans conséquence : si sur la forme, les autorités concernés escomptent bien obtenir un bénéfice populaire, et probablement électoraliste, à court ou moyen terme, il n'en reste pas moins que sur le long terme, c'est aussi, hormis l'aspect sécuritaire et militaire, un "déni de réalité" que font ces États ouest-africains, particulièrement le Mali et le Burkina Faso.

En effet, en dépit de l'histoire coloniale française, la France partage avec ces États sahélo-sahariens non seulement la francophonie, mais également un lien unique, une identité, des valeurs communes, et aussi, je peux l'affirmer, beaucoup d'empathie et de fraternité.

Rétablir la réalité des faits pour sortir des perceptions et préjugés ?

Enfin, l'idée que la France "pillerait" les richesses de l'Afrique sous couvert d'une présence militaire est simpliste et surtout totalement faux : les opérations militaires françaises "Serval" et "Barkhane" ont coûté à la France bien plus cher que n'ont rapporté les exploitations minières françaises, d'ailleurs en forte baisse au Sahel (Mali, Niger). Dans cette région de l'Ouest-Africain, c'est en fait avec le Nigéria que la France réalise la majorité de ses échanges commerciaux...

Aussi, multiplier les partenariats et s'ouvrir à d'autres acteurs diplomatiques, économiques, et même militaires est plutôt sain et louable pour les États africains, quels qu'ils soient, au regard du contexte actuel mondial, et notamment africain, bouleversé et instable...

Mais se jeter dans les bras de Wagner ou de la seule Russie n'est certes pas la solution idoine, et rejeter en bloc tout lien avec la France n'aurait aucun sens !

Un jeune activiste sahélien me résumait ainsi la situation de la France aujourd'hui au Sahel et plus largement en Afrique : "La France doit comprendre qu'elle n'a plus 51 % des parts, qu'elle n'est plus le "décideur", mais seulement un partenaire minoritaire... Comme les autres !".

Alors que le gouvernement de transition a décidé de se passer de la mission française Sabre, quelle est sa stratégie en matière de lutte anti-terroriste ?

La France a acté le départ d'ici un mois de ses soldats des forces spéciales déployés au Burkina Faso dans le cadre de l'opération Sabre.

L'annonce a été faite mercredi par le ministère français des Affaires étrangères.

Présentes au Sahel depuis 14 ans, les forces spéciales françaises de l'opération "Sabre" sont spécialisées dans le renseignement. Elles procèdent, chaque année, à une quarantaine de missions et sont spécialisées dans l'élimination des chefs des réseaux djihadistes.

Dès lors, comment analyser la stratégie de lutte contre le djihadisme mise en place par les nouvelles autorités de la transition burkinabè ?
France ou pas, la lutte anti-terroriste a été "contreproductive" (Bakary Sambe)
Ecoutez ou lisez ce qu'en pense Bakary Sambe, directeur régional au Timbuktu Institute, le Centre africain des études pour la paix

 Retranscription de l'entretien

Bakary Sambe : Le Burkina s'est inscrit depuis très longtemps dans une logique de recruter des groupes d'autodéfense comme les Koglweogo et ensuite les VDP (Volontaires pour la Défense de la Patrie) pour communautariser la lutte contre le terrorisme. Mais nous avons vu les travers auxquels cette stratégie a pu conduire, avec notamment l'ostracisme à l'égard de certaines populations dans le Soum, dans l'Oudalan et même dans la région de Djibo ou dans le Centre-Ouest. Et nous voyons aujourd'hui que cette stratégie là n'a pas été payante. Cette stratégie a conduit véritablement à des conflits intercommunautaires que l'on a remarqués et qui ont exacerbé la situation sécuritaire au Burkina Faso.

DW : Et cette stratégie doit-elle continuer ?

Bakary Sambe : S'il faut continuer dans cette même stratégie, il faudrait vraiment la mitiger et réorienter cette stratégie là selon le nouveau paradigme selon lequel la plupart de ce qu'on appelle les jihadistes au Burkina Faso sont Burkinabè; 90 % des combattants qu'on appelle jihadistes au Burkina Faso sont burkinabè. Maintenant, s'il faut aller vers une logique communautaire, vers une stratégie se tournant vers le dialogue, comme on l'a vu au Niger, cela peut être salutaire. De toute façon, la stratégie de lutte contre le terrorisme, telle qu'entamée depuis - avec les forces françaises ou sans les forces françaises - a été contreproductive parce qu'elle ne répondait plus à la réalité du terrain.

DW : Et même si cette stratégie est désuète, est ce qu'elle n'apporte pas plus de résultats que celle en vigueur au Mali voisin ?

Bakary Sambe : Absolument. Je crois que le fait de s'appuyer sur le renseignement humain, de s'appuyer sur les communautés elles-mêmes et les impliquer, cela relève d'une bonne stratégie. Mais je doute fort de la rupture paradigmatique qui est nécessaire aujourd'hui, c'est à dire ne plus s'inscrire dans une logique de mettre les communautés les unes contre les autres et de s'orienter vers un véritable dialogue communautaire impliquant même ces sociétés qui ont été ostracisées.

DW : Dernière question Bakary Sambe, est-ce que la stratégie mise en place par le capitaine Ibrahim Traoré et son régime, est-ce qu'elle n'est pas plus pratique que celle qui était expérimentée avant sa prise de pouvoir ?

Bakary Sambe : On ne peut pas pour l'instant donner une appréciation objective de la stratégie burkinabé avec les nouvelles autorités. Pour deux raisons. La première est que ces nouvelles autorités arrivent au pouvoir et veulent s'adosser à une légitimité populaire et sociale, d'où la rupture immédiate avec la France pour montrer que cela changera par rapport à Damiba. Mais aussi, à part cet exploit qui a été de récupérer ces femmes qui ont été enlevées par les jihadistes, il faudrait donner du temps à cette stratégie là, de voir comment elle va se déployer, comment elle va rompre d'avec les paradigmes antérieurs, mais surtout comment elle va faire de sorte à éviter les effets contreproductifs de la lutte contre le terrorisme qui utilisent certaines communautés contre les autres, notamment les communautés peules, au risque de créer aujourd'hui une véritable fracture au sein de la société burkinabè qui, à mon avis, pourrait aboutir à des conséquences encore plus dramatiques.

Source : Deutsche Welle



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The main themes of the summit focused on all  aspects of Africa’s inclusive growth.

Addressing African leaders at the summit, the US President, Joe Biden and National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan said the US would commit $55 billion to promote development in Africa.

They said much Work would be dedicated to infrastructure in Niger and Benin with a sum of $500 million while US$350 million  is moved  towards boosting the digital economy.

According to them the Biden Administration plans to work with Congress alongside the Young African Leaders Initiative YALI to provide over $100 million.  The Administration is committed to working closely with Congress to for low and middle-income countries   and lend up to $21 billion through the International Monetary Fund to support African resilience and recovery efforts

 Joe Biden noted that the agreement establishing the African Continental Free Trade would help create a continent-wide market for the estimated 1.3 billion people and wealth of  $3.4 trillion

Besides that The International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) announced $369 million in new investments to help promote food security, help in renewable energy infrastructure and Health projects, Biden hopes to strengthen security efforts in the continent through the 21st Century Partnership for African Security with about $100 million to bolster African security efforts

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Report by Timbuktu Institute- African Center for Peace Studies